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What is a Pigment

what is skin pigmentation


The term ‘pigment’ means ‘colouring.’ While many people have even colouring across their skin during their younger years, one sign of ageing is pigmentation. If a patch of skin becomes a lot darker than the areas surrounding it, medical professionals refer to it as ‘hyperpigmentation.’

The pigment of your skin may change when specific cells become overactive. Such cells produce a hormone called melanin, which regulates the colour of your skin. If those cells become overactive, your skin’s colourants may become a lot darker or redder than usual.

Overactive melanocytes are sometimes a sign that your skin is unhealthy, or that there’s something more severe happening beneath the surface. In other cases, the colouration of your skin changes as a part of the ageing process. While you can’t stop this from happening forever, there are ways to slow the process down, and medical professionals can treat existing areas of pigmentation.

While you may not worry about pigments and discolouration on many areas of your body, your face is different. As an area that is visible to others throughout the day, the appearance of pigments on its skin may leave you feeling self-conscious. By learning more about what pigments are, how they happen, and the treatment measures available; you can choose whether to opt for a cosmetic therapy to reduce pigmentation.

What is skin pigmentation?

In the medical world, the term ‘pigmentation’ applies to a lot of conditions. Such conditions include:


Some people are more susceptible to freckles than others, mainly due to genetics. They are more likely to appear during the summer months when you expose your skin to too many UV rays. UV ray exposure encourages your melanocytes to release more melanin, making freckles more obvious. During the winter, they usually fade.

Sunspots and sun damage

Those who expose themselves to too much sun over the years may encounter sunspots. Sunspots and sun damage usually present as large and dark patches of skin, which stand out from the surrounding areas.

Age Spots

Unlike sunspots, age spots have raised edges. Like sunspots, they are dark compared to surrounding areas of the skin. If you begin to notice age spots, you should seek advice from your GP to ensure you are not confusing them with a malignant mole.


According to the American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, most cases of hyperpigmentation are not harmful. However, some patients feel uncomfortable with their appearance, which is why they seek cosmetic treatments.

It is important to recognise that there are other conditions you could confuse with pigmentation. One such example is a malignant mole, which looks like a raised age spot with poorly defined borders. Such moles may change over time, which is another indicator that it is cancerous.

Similarly, pregnant women experience hyperpigmentation, as their bodies produce more melanin in specific areas. For example, they may encounter “the mask of pregnancy;” which is a butterfly-like mask that spreads across their face.

who is more at risk of developing pigmentation
Excess Sun Exposure

Who is more at risk of developing pigmentation?

Genetics aside, the way you go about your daily life places you at higher risk of hyperpigmentation. Such activities can include:

Spending too much time in the sun

As the number one cause of pigmentation, excess sun exposure sends your melanocytes into overdrive. Although melanin will try to protect you from UV rays, too much exposure to them will stop their work, leading to pigments.

Your weight and how it affects your hormones

Did you know that the more fat you carry, the more oestrogen you produce? This applies to men as well as women. The lipid cells in your body send out signals asking for oestrogen, forcing your body to make more of it.

Seeing as women produce more oestrogen than men anyway, this is more of a problem for them. Too much oestrogen can send your melanocytes into overdrive also, leading to more pigments. It’s for this reason that pregnant women experience dark spots across various areas of their bodies.

Your job, tattoos, and henna

That’s right, people in certain occupations are at higher risk of hyperpigmentation than others. For example, if you’re a gardener or someone else who spends a lot of time outside, you’re exposing yourself to more sun.

Similarly, if you like to use henna or you’re a tattoo lover, you’ll trigger your melanocytes, and they’ll deposit melanin at random. So, it’s probably a good idea to hold back on the pretty hand art, for now.

What causes skin pigmentation?

The most common cause of pigmentation is too much exposure to UV rays. When you expose yourself to UV rays from the sun or a tanning bed, your melanocytes respond by producing melanin. Although melanin leads to a tan, too much UV ray exposure can damage your melanocytes. When this happens, they produce too much melanin compared to those in the surrounding area, leading to pigmentation.

Other causes of pigmentation include:


  • Changes in hormones

    While the exact reasons are not known, some women experience hyperpigmentation when they undergo hormonal changes. Pregnancy is not the only example of this. One female hormone, oestrogen, encourages melanocytes to produce more melanin. Progesterone, which is a hormone both men and women encounter, has the same effect. However, it isn’t clear why they cause hyperpigmentation in some areas and not others.


  • Skin injuries and trauma

    Also known as ‘post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation,’ skin injuries and trauma can cause pigments to appear. It is for this reason that those who suffer from acne vulgaris are more likely to encounter pigments. Acne vulgaris is a condition that involves increased inflammation around the epidermis, which is the skin’s upper layer. When the epidermis encounters too much inflammation, the melanocytes beneath release more melanin, causing it to darken or develop dark patches.


  • Your Genes

    Research published in the American Journal of Physical Anthropology in 2007 identified at least six genes related to pigmentation of the skin. As such, if your parents have pigmented skin, you are at higher risk of experiencing it too.

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Possible Treatments and Ways to prevent pigments

Regardless of what is causing your pigmentation, it is natural to seek remedies. Before you explore cosmetic therapies, though, you might want to consider lifestyle factors that could slow the colouration process down and help with other aspects of the anti-ageing process.


  • Spend less time in the sun

    As exposure to too many UV rays is the leading cause of pigmentation, you should spend less time in the sun. If you are going on holiday or have an occupation that involves spending a lot of time outdoors, use a sunscreen with an SPF of at least 15. Also, avoid using tanning beds.

  • Pay attention to your skincare routine

    When choosing products such as moisturisers and serums, look at their ingredients. Skin care products that contain omega fatty acids, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, and Vitamin A all play a role in reducing inflammation. Choosing a skin care product with any of these ingredients will reduce inflammation, which lessens your chance of encountering pigments.

  • Chemical skin peels for pigmentation

    Unfortunately, once pigmentation settles in on your face, using preventative measures alone will not make the problem go away. One cosmetic treatment available is chemical peeling for pigmentation.

  • Glycolic skin peels

    Glycolic skin peels are particularly useful for reducing pigmentation. Glycolic skin peels contain components that are rubbed gently into your skin. Afterwards, they are left to settle for a short period so that they can exfoliate and remove the layers where pigmentation is apparent.

    The benefits of using a glycolic skin peel for reducing pigmentation include:

    • The skin begins to produce new cells, which have an even skin tone.
    • Following the skin peel, more collagen and elastin reach the area. As a result, your skin looks fresher and tighter.
    • A reduction in sun damage, which improves the overall look of the skin.

    To see the full benefits of a Glycolic skin peel, you will need more than one treatment. You will discuss the number of chemical peels you need at your initial consultation, should you choose this therapy.

How Can Rutland Aesthetics Help

At Rutland Aesthetics, our cosmetic team is lead by Dr Dhesi. As a doctor who qualified in 1998, he has since trained in Aesthetic Medicine. As such, he can perform a full assessment of your current pigmentation problems and recommend a treatment that will suit your skin type. Using an honest and integrative approach, Dr Dhesi will help you even your skin tone using outpatient treatments that are minimally invasive.

If you would like to know what pigments are and how you can treat them, call a member of our team today to begin the consultation process.

*Please note that a medical consultation is required before having the treatment. Book online or call for an appointment.